The Melon Strolling on Two Tendrils: (New) Pains of Pregnancy

by Eve Mitchell

An earlier draft of this article was originally published by the Florence Johnston Collective here.  Thanks to the Collective for its significant comments and edits.

02jane_400 (1)I’m a riddle in nine syllables,

An elephant, a ponderous house,

A melon strolling on two tendrils.

O red fruit, ivory, fine timbers!

This loaf’s big with its yeasty rising.

Money’s new-minted in this fat purse.

I’m a means, a stage, a cow in calf.

I’ve eaten a bag of green apples,

Boarded the train there’s no getting off.

“A Melon Strolling on Two Tendrils” is a line from Sylvia Plath’s poem, “Metaphors,” written in 1959.  Plath is one of many women who began to question the ways in which they were gendered, most notably around motherhood and the family. For the time period, pregnancy descriptions like “elephant,” a “house,” and “a melon strolling on two tendrils,” were extremely critical and skeptical depictions of a supposed deeply fulfilling and wonderful moment in a woman’s life. In fact, pregnancy was arguably the sole purpose for a woman like Plath’s existence in 1959.  While Plath represented a specific layer of oppressed people, and one whose demands have been (and continue to be) oftentimes at odds with working class women, her poem expresses a humanist perspective that cuts deeper than the specifics of her particular class position. She is questioning our inability to truly control our activity and women’s inability to choose how, when, where, and if they give birth. This fundamental barrier—our lack of freedom under capitalism—is what motivates “Metaphors,” as well as my article.  In the same way that women like Plath lacked free choice around their childbirths, women in Tennessee are being criminalized during childbirth; women in California are kept from birthing children; and women in the Gulf Coast region are without safe abortion access. Plath’s poem has a whole new meaning; today we face new levels and extremes when navigating with the pains of pregnancy.

According to a new law(1)“Tennesse Just Became the First State that Will Jail Women for their Pregnancy Outcomes,” Portside,https://portside.org/2014-04-30/tennessee-just-became-first-state-will-jail-women-their-pregnancy- outcomes. in Tennessee, women who give birth to a baby that shows signs of drug abuse during pregnancy can be prosecuted with criminal assault.  Similarly, other states are currently considering bills that criminalize women for “reckless” behavior during pregnancy.  These developments represent one strategy the State uses in attempt to control reproduction and discipline women’s bodies.  It is an attack against working class women, and primarily women of color, not unlike those we have seen in Texas(2)“Texas Abortion Laws Creates Obstacles for Valley Women,” USA Today,http://www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation/2014/05/17/texas-abortion-law-women- valley/8804871/, California(3)“Calif. Prison Doctor Linked to Sterilizations No Stranger to Controversy,” The Center for Investigative Reporting,http://cironline.org/reports/calif-prison-doctor-linked- sterilizations-no-stranger-controversy-5859, nationally(4)“Rachel Maddow Explains Why the Supreme Court’s Hobby Lobby Ruling is Such a Major Blow,” The Huffington Post,http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/07/01/rachel-maddow-hobby-lobby-scotus_n_ 5547211.html and globally(5)“Depopulating the Third World: UN Sterilization Campaigns in Developing Countries,” ExplosiveReports.com,http://explosivereports.com/2012/07/10/ depopulating-the-third-world-un-sterilization-campaigns-in-developing-countries- accelerating/.  All of these measures will impede women’s access to health care and efface women’s reproductive skills and knowledge.  But unlike abortion restrictions and forced sterilization, the Tennessee law is an attempt to divide feminized workers under the guise of “protection” of women and children, a strategy we are likely to see more frequently as the economic crisis deepens.

S.B. 1391 and the Crisis

tumblr_mpl0wvxalq1roheulo1_500Today’s crisis is manifested in the inability of the working class to take care of itself or reproduce itself; it is a crisis of reproduction.  Wages are so low that the working class cannot get everything it needs to go to work every day and satisfy its most basic needs.  The working class has responded to this crisis of reproduction with personal debt.  We get credit cards to buy clothes and pay our cell phone bills and we take out student loans we may never pay back, just to make an extra $3/hr.  This is what life looks like for the working class today.

On a more abstract level, the crisis of reproduction also means a crisis of reproduction of capital itself.  As a general law of capitalism, profits must always increase. Capitalists make changes to the workplace by introducing more and more machines and pushing workers out of the production process to ensure a higher rate of profit.  But this catches up to them.  Since workers are the only ones capable of creating value (there is always a worker somewhere in the production process!), the more capitalists push workers out of the production process, the more the profit margin weakens.  Couple this phenomenon with the working class’s increased dependence on debt and loans, and we find ourselves in today’s economic crisis.

On top of this, because so many workers are pushed out of the production process in favor of machinery (consider Detroit’s 23%(6)“Unemployment Rates for the 50 Largest Cities,” Bureau of Labor Statistics,http://www.bls.gov/lau/lacilg10.htm unemployment rate for example), a surplus population of workers makes it possible for capitalism to pit people against each other in competition for jobs.  In this sense, the ruling class has an interest in controlling the actual number of workers there are in the world at a given moment based on the needs of capital.

Silvia Federici describes this phenomenon(7)Caliban and the Witch by Silvia Federici, http://libcom. org/files/Caliban%20and%20the%20Witch.pdf with reference to the early days of capitalism, when disease threatened to wipe out the emerging waged working population.  Federici argues that the State implemented a reproductive policy in the interest of capitalism by criminalizing abortion and contraception and all forms of non-reproductive sexuality, punishing such crimes by death.  While the measures the rulers use today are not as extreme, it is clear that there is still an interest in controlling women’s bodies and reproduction in general, in order to manage population levels and discipline women’s knowledge and control over reproduction.

Furthermore, a large surplus population and competition for jobs means that workers are extremely replaceable.  Workplaces have been reorganized so workers are increasingly non-unionized and in precarious working conditions.  Additionally, from a capitalist perspective, the working class’s inability to reproduce itself makes for a volatile situation.  Wages are so low that many workers must rely on welfare benefits to supplement their income(8)“When Do We SNAP? Against Cuts, Low Wages, and Food Stamp Discipline,” Florence Johnston Collective,http://florencejohnstoncollective.wordpress.com/2013/09/ 02/when-do-we-snap-against-cuts-low-wages-and-food- stamp-discipline/.  However, the strategies the ruling class utilizes to manage the crisis include intense austerity measures.  Increasingly, there is no safety net(9)“When Do We SNAP? Against Cuts, Low Wages, and Food Stamp Discipline,” Florence Johnston Collective,http://florencejohnstoncollective.wordpress.com/2013/09/ 02/when-do-we-snap-against-cuts-low-wages-and-food- stamp-discipline/ for unemployed(10)“Emergency Unemployment Compensation (EUC) Expired on January, 1, 2014,” United States Department of Labor,http://www.workforcesecurity.doleta.gov/unemploy/supp _act.asp and low wage workers(11)“When Welfare Pays Better than Work,” New York Post,http://nypost.com/2013/08/19/when-welfare-pays -better-than-work/, and it is becoming harder to find a job with benefits.  It becomes clear why some capitalists have pushed policies that increase criminalization of welfare recipients, most recently around drug testing(12)“Stereotypes, Myths and Criminalizing Policies: Regulating the Lives of Poor Women, INCITE! Women of Color Against Violence,http://inciteblog.wordpress.com/2011/07/19/stereotypes-myths-criminalizing-policies-regulating-the-lives-of-poor-women/, and have traded the carrot for the stick in order to ensure a generalized desperation around keeping a steady (but sporadic) wage. 

They simply want the most efficient, interchangeable, disposable workers at the lowest possible cost. In Tennessee this means criminalizing poor women who give birth in hospitals. In New York, this will look like hospital closures and mergers.  In Texas, this means shutting down women’s health care centers in rural areas.

It is no surprise, then, that the latest round of attacks against poor women of color occurred in Tennessee, a state that refused Medicaid expansion alongside the implementation of the Affordable Care Act.  It is clearer than ever that the ruling class is not interested in the actual health of babies or the welfare of society.  They simply want the most efficient, interchangeable, disposable workers at the lowest possible cost.  This means cutting the cost of reproduction in the form of the Welfare State and access to medical care.  Concretely, in Tennessee this means criminalizing poor women who give birth in hospitals. In New York, this will look like hospital closures and mergers.  In Texas, this means shutting down women’s health care centers in rural areas.

Finally, we cannot ignore the gendered and racialized form the crisis is taking.  A crisis of reproduction means health care, education, feeding, cleaning, and other forms of care work that have increasingly become paid work (thanks to the contradictory struggles of the women’s liberation movement), will be pushed back into the home.  And since women still do most of the domestic labor in the home(13)“Study: Female Breadwinners Still Do Most of the Housework,” Buzzfeed.com,http://www.buzzfeed.com/annanorth/study-female-breadwinners-still-do-most-of-the-ho#.cpQGyzEGR, working class women of color will have to take care of their young, elderly, and sick family members on top of working 2-3 jobs to pay the bills.  It is frightening to think that on top of absorbing the reproduction of other members of the working class, women are being discouraged and physically blocked from obtaining care for themselves.

Divisions Within Feminized Labor

In Caliban and the Witch(14)Caliban and the Witch by Silvia Federici, http://libcom. org/files/Caliban%20and%20the%20Witch.pdf, Silvia Federici describes 16th century Europe, where medical professionalization began.  She argues that in the process of primitive accumulation(15)“Primitive Accumulation,” Wikipedia.org,http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Primitive_accumulation (the need of the new capitalist system to absorb as many resources, including land and labor power, as possible and force peasants into the wage system), the medical system became “professionalized.”  Concretely, this meant that midwives, who were largely organic female healers in the community, were forcibly replaced by male doctors.  Concomitantly, largely feminized (waged) professions around health care, including nursing(16)“The Rise of Hospitals, The Decline of Healthcare,” Florence Johnston Collective,http://florencejohnstoncollective.wordpress.com/2013/12/09/the-rise-of-hospitals-and- the-decline-of-health/, developed.  Federici describes this process:

With the marginalization of the midwife, the process began by which women lost the control they had exercised over procreation, and were reduced to a passive role in child delivery, while male doctors came to be seen as true ‘givers of life’… With this shift, a new medical practice also prevailed, one that in the case of a medical emergency prioritized the life of the fetus over that of the mother.  This was in contrast to the customary birthing process which women had controlled; and indeed, for it to happen, the community of women that had gathered around the bed of the future mother had to first be expelled from the delivery room, and the midwives had to be placed under the surveillance of the doctor, or had to be recruited to police women.

In France and Germany, midwives had to become spies for the state, if they wanted to continue their practice (89).

The world that Federici describes is not too far off from the context in which we now find ourselves.  Hospitals are highly feminized workplaces; over 90% of RNs are women(17)“Quick Stats on Women Workers, 2010,” Bureau of Labor Statistics,http://www.dol.gov/wb/factsheets/QS-womenwork2010.htm and 73% of other medical and health service providers are women(18)“Quick Stats on Women Workers, 2010,” Bureau of Labor Statistics,http://www.dol.gov/wb/factsheets/QS-womenwork2010.htm.  Further, the Tennessee law will force a majority female workforce to act as reproductive snitches and spies for the State.  This division will no doubt have a severe racialized component as well, since about 81%(19)“Quick Facts on Registered Nurses,” Bureau of Labor Statistics,http://www.dol.gov/wb/factsheets/Qf-nursing.htm of nurses are white and these measures are expected to target primarily working class women of color(20)“The Dangers of Criminalizing Pregnancy Outcomes,” Pacific Standard,http://www.psmag.com/navigation/politics-and-law/dangers-criminalizing-pregnancy- outcomes-81289/, as has historically been the case for drug offenses in the US(21)“Criminal Justice Fact Sheet,” NAACP, http://www.naacp.org/pages/criminal-justice-fact-sheet. More than anything, this is another step toward the State’s absolute control over reproduction and female bodies.

The Myth of “Protection”

5-1-14-abortion-in-south-map-aug2014-optimizedThe State has spent the last 50 years slowly chipping away at the gains of the women’s liberation movement of the 1960s and 1970s.  The movement itself, and therefore the demands that accompanied it, was contradictory, embodying pro-capitalist demands such as “equal work for equal pay,” as well as revolutionary demands intended to break capital such as wages for housework and the abolition of work and gendered divisions altogether.  The accomplishments of the movement included (some) access to abortion and contraception, increased financial independence from men and diminished isolation, and access to higher paying waged labor, and a generalized increase in liberatory expressions of female and queer sexuality.

Over time, many of these gains have been subsumed into capitalism (for example, see debates on gay marriage(22)Eve Mitchell, “Calling All Queers: Let’s Kick Some Capitalist Ass,” July 2011,https://werehirwerequeer.wordpress.com/2011/07/25/calling-all-queers-lets-kick-capitalist-ass/) or reversed in some way.  The most obvious example is the slow, state by state repeal(23)“State Policies in Brief: An Overview of Abortion Laws As of July 1, 2014,” Guttmacher Institute,http://www.guttmacher.org/statecenter/spibs/spib_OAL.pdf of reproductive rights.  Another strategy is the State’s patriarchal attempt to “defend” or “protect” women and children by expanding the prison-industrial complex(24)Prison Industrial Complex,”http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prison%E2%80%93 industrial_complex.  One side of this process is the hyper-incarceration of men of color who are said to be a danger to our communities. The other side is the increasing arrest, detention and incarceration of women and transgender people (the women’s prison population increased 646%(25)“Incarcerated Women,” The Sentencing Project,http://www.sentencingproject.org/doc/publications/cc_Incarcerated_Women_Factsheet_Sep24sp.pdf between 1980 and 2010, and trans people are routinely policed for their gender transgressions(26)“Stonewalled: Police Abuse and Misconduct against Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender People in the U.S.,” Amnesty International,http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/AMR51/122/2005/en/2200113d-d4bd-11dd-8a23-d58a49c0d652/ amr511222005en.pdf) who are a supposed danger to the families they care for.  (Note that 62%(27)“Incarcerated Women,” The Sentencing Project,http://www.sentencingproject.org/doc/publications/cc_Incarcerated_Women_Factsheet_ Sep24sp.pdf of incarcerated women are mothers.)

In reality, the ruling class criminalizes women as a strategy for repression and control under the guise of “protection.”  Women and people of color don’t need the State’s protection! In fact, police and prisons increase the danger within our communities, since police and corrections officers are known to(28)“Gender Violence and the Prison Industrial Complex,” INCITE! Critical Resistance Statement,http://www.incite-national.org/page/incite-critical-resistance-statement regularly enforce strict gender expressions; these are the same officials who murder, sexually harass, beat, and rape women and queers. 

41% of all neonatal abstinence syndrome cases (meaning a baby is born with some level of drug dependence and suffers withdrawal) in Tennessee last year involved doctor-prescribed medications.

A provision of the Tennessee law allows women to escape prosecution and incarceration by participating in the drug court system.  This is similar to an initiative in Dallas, Texas(29)New Life Prostitution Initiative,”http://www.pdinewlife.org/about/, that allows sex workers a “treatment-based” ultimatum:  complete a state-planned path to “success,” including a low-wage job, counseling and other programming, or serve time in jail.  Such methods simply reinforce the patriarchy of the State.  Forcing individuals into treatment does nothing to build their self-confidence and capacity as subjective actors in society (for more on forced treatment see this statement(30)“Psychiatry: We Need a Truth and Reconciliation Commission in Mental Health,” Leah Harris,http://www.madinamerica.com/2014/05/psychiatry-admit-wrong-mental-health/ from a comrade).  Additionally, drug courts have failed to significantly reduce recidivism(31)“Do Drug Courts Work? Findings from Drug Court Research,” National Institute of Justice, http://www.nij.gov/topics/courts/drug-courts/pages/work.aspx.  But clearly this is not what the U.S. government is going for.

Finally, and here’s the kicker…41%(32)“The Dangers of Criminalizing Pregnancy Outcomes,” Pacific Standard,http://www.psmag.com/navigation/politics-and-law/dangers-criminalizing-pregnancy- outcomes-81289/ of all neonatal abstinence syndrome cases (meaning a baby is born with some level of drug dependence and suffers withdrawal) in Tennessee last year involved doctor-prescribed medications.  So the State of Tennessee is actually criminalizing and incarcerating women for taking drugs that its healthcare system is encouraging them to use.  Clearly, what’s not at stake here is women’s and children’s protection.

Why People Use Drugs

20121115-graph-how-we-measure-poverty-01-1 (1)Many of the liberal voices objecting to the Tennessee law argue that the bill does nothing(33)“Tennessee Set to Criminalize Pregnant Women Who Use Illegal Drugs,” The Guardian,http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/apr/19/tennessee-criminalise-pregnant-women-drugs to actually encourage women to seek drug treatment, and the State should look(34)“The Dangers of Criminalizing Pregnancy Outcomes,” Pacific Standard,http://www.psmag.com/navigation/politics-and-law/dangers-criminalizing-pregnancy- outcomes-81289/ for the root causes of drug abuse instead of targeting pregnant women.  While we agree in principle that people should have options to get off drugs if they wish to do so, to us the issue is far more complicated than increasing access to 12-step programs and treatment centers.  For us, the root reason people abuse drugs is the State and capitalism itself (and not the moral, individual failure of the individual abusers and addicts).  Many of us are overworked, and feel alone and unhappy most of the time.  We are abused by our bosses and compete and fight with our coworkers.  We have antagonistic relationships with our partners, children and parents.  We are harassed in the streets. It is no wonder that millions of women seek to numb the misery of life in capitalism, patriarchy, racism and homo/transphobia through pain medications (causing the CDC to declare a “painkiller endemic among women”(35)“New CDC Vital Signs: Prescription Painkiller Epidemic Among Women,” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,http://www.cdc.gov/media/dpk/2013/dpk-Prescription%20drug%20overdose.html).

This is not a social problem we can overcome through more programs. “Treatment” itself is a complicated idea.  On the one hand, we agree that there are some advances made by our capitalist society that benefit us, for example, hormone therapy and surgery for transgender individuals or brain and heart surgery. On the other hand, the majority of medical technologies simply increase risks to ourselves(36)“Chemotherapy Side Effects Sheet,” National Cancer Institute,http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/coping/physicaleffects/chemo-side-effects; also see “Birth Defects Linked to Zoloft,” Birth Defect,http://birthdefectresource.com/birth-defect-causes/ prescription-drugs/antidepressants/zoloft-ab/, other people(37)“Sex, Love and SSRIs,” Psychology Today,http://www.psychologytoday.com/articles/200704/sex-love- and-ssris, animals(38)“Problems with Animal Research,” American Anti-Vivisection Society,http://www.aavs.org/site/c.bkLTKfOSLhK6E/b.6456997/k.3D74/Problems_with_ Animal_Research.htm#.U8gCB41dXzd and the environment(39)“Environmental Impact of Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products,” Wikipedia,http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Environmental_impact_of_pharmaceuticals_and_personal_care_products, all in the name(40)“The Sky-High Cost of Chemotherapy: Why Do Cancer Drugs Cost So Much?” Takepart,http://www.takepart.com/article/2013/05/09/cost-of-chemotherapy of ever-increasing profits(41)“HIV Treatment Becoming Profitable,” LA Times,http://articles.latimes.com/2008/feb/21/business/fi-hiv21. This is why through struggle, we need to retain what is useful, but completely reorganize and reinvent how we care for ourselves and others.

Some Possible Solutions

We do not purport to be experts on this issue.  While many of us work in healthcare, we are still learning what it truly means to care for ourselves and others.  Furthermore, we do not believe that we can simply invent the answers out of thin air.  We need a movement—millions of people coming together for an extended period of time in order to clarify what it means to be fully healthy human beings. 

As healthcare workers, we believe that there are many things we do daily that could be done by people without professional training.  We also believe that since we were trained to do our work, we can just as easily pass on those skills.  Relating specifically to the Tennessee law, we should socialize the skills required to bear and birth children, so we no longer rely on the State or the professionalized medical profession that clearly do not have our interests in mind.

But absent a movement, we believe there are some things we can do to start building the world we want to see.  The first is socializing knowledge and regaining control of reproduction.  Flo Jo has been studying groups like the Jane Collective(42)“The Jane Collective,” Chicago’s Women’s Liberation Union,http://www.cwluherstory.org/Jane-Abortion-Service/ as a model for self- and community-led care and democratic use of technical skills.  Specifically, the Jane Collective offered a holistic approach to abortion services and socialized skills for performing and assisting with abortions.  As healthcare workers, we believe that there are many things we do daily that could be done by people without professional training.  We also believe that since we were trained to do our work, we can just as easily pass on those skills.  Relating specifically to the Tennessee law, we should socialize the skills required to bear and birth children, so we no longer rely on the State or the professionalized medical profession that clearly do not have our interests in mind.

Alongside socializing skills, we must always engage in work that builds up women’s self-confidence and capacity for action.  This means taking risks in feminized workplaces, struggling for small gains and welfare reforms, and transforming “care work” into useful and enriching social relationships in the process of struggle.  These acts will build up our self-confidence, strengthen our skills, and give us practice for the longer-term fights we will wage against capital, patriarchy, racism, homo/transphobia, and the State.

Immediately, healthcare professionals should boycott the Tennessee law and other measures that criminalize pregnant women, socialize their grievances and start building grassroots, worker-and patient-led groups that will build our confidence and ability to struggle against attacks on women of color and other oppressed layers of the working class.

Footnotes   [ + ]

1. “Tennesse Just Became the First State that Will Jail Women for their Pregnancy Outcomes,” Portside,https://portside.org/2014-04-30/tennessee-just-became-first-state-will-jail-women-their-pregnancy- outcomes.
2. “Texas Abortion Laws Creates Obstacles for Valley Women,” USA Today,http://www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation/2014/05/17/texas-abortion-law-women- valley/8804871/
3. “Calif. Prison Doctor Linked to Sterilizations No Stranger to Controversy,” The Center for Investigative Reporting,http://cironline.org/reports/calif-prison-doctor-linked- sterilizations-no-stranger-controversy-5859
4. “Rachel Maddow Explains Why the Supreme Court’s Hobby Lobby Ruling is Such a Major Blow,” The Huffington Post,http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/07/01/rachel-maddow-hobby-lobby-scotus_n_ 5547211.html
5. “Depopulating the Third World: UN Sterilization Campaigns in Developing Countries,” ExplosiveReports.com,http://explosivereports.com/2012/07/10/ depopulating-the-third-world-un-sterilization-campaigns-in-developing-countries- accelerating/
6. “Unemployment Rates for the 50 Largest Cities,” Bureau of Labor Statistics,http://www.bls.gov/lau/lacilg10.htm
7. Caliban and the Witch by Silvia Federici, http://libcom. org/files/Caliban%20and%20the%20Witch.pdf
8, 9. “When Do We SNAP? Against Cuts, Low Wages, and Food Stamp Discipline,” Florence Johnston Collective,http://florencejohnstoncollective.wordpress.com/2013/09/ 02/when-do-we-snap-against-cuts-low-wages-and-food- stamp-discipline/
10. “Emergency Unemployment Compensation (EUC) Expired on January, 1, 2014,” United States Department of Labor,http://www.workforcesecurity.doleta.gov/unemploy/supp _act.asp
11. “When Welfare Pays Better than Work,” New York Post,http://nypost.com/2013/08/19/when-welfare-pays -better-than-work/
12. “Stereotypes, Myths and Criminalizing Policies: Regulating the Lives of Poor Women, INCITE! Women of Color Against Violence,http://inciteblog.wordpress.com/2011/07/19/stereotypes-myths-criminalizing-policies-regulating-the-lives-of-poor-women/
13. “Study: Female Breadwinners Still Do Most of the Housework,” Buzzfeed.com,http://www.buzzfeed.com/annanorth/study-female-breadwinners-still-do-most-of-the-ho#.cpQGyzEGR
14. Caliban and the Witch by Silvia Federici, http://libcom. org/files/Caliban%20and%20the%20Witch.pdf
15. “Primitive Accumulation,” Wikipedia.org,http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Primitive_accumulation
16. “The Rise of Hospitals, The Decline of Healthcare,” Florence Johnston Collective,http://florencejohnstoncollective.wordpress.com/2013/12/09/the-rise-of-hospitals-and- the-decline-of-health/
17, 18. “Quick Stats on Women Workers, 2010,” Bureau of Labor Statistics,http://www.dol.gov/wb/factsheets/QS-womenwork2010.htm
19. “Quick Facts on Registered Nurses,” Bureau of Labor Statistics,http://www.dol.gov/wb/factsheets/Qf-nursing.htm
20. “The Dangers of Criminalizing Pregnancy Outcomes,” Pacific Standard,http://www.psmag.com/navigation/politics-and-law/dangers-criminalizing-pregnancy- outcomes-81289/
21. “Criminal Justice Fact Sheet,” NAACP, http://www.naacp.org/pages/criminal-justice-fact-sheet
22. Eve Mitchell, “Calling All Queers: Let’s Kick Some Capitalist Ass,” July 2011,https://werehirwerequeer.wordpress.com/2011/07/25/calling-all-queers-lets-kick-capitalist-ass/
23. “State Policies in Brief: An Overview of Abortion Laws As of July 1, 2014,” Guttmacher Institute,http://www.guttmacher.org/statecenter/spibs/spib_OAL.pdf
24. Prison Industrial Complex,”http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prison%E2%80%93 industrial_complex
25. “Incarcerated Women,” The Sentencing Project,http://www.sentencingproject.org/doc/publications/cc_Incarcerated_Women_Factsheet_Sep24sp.pdf
26. “Stonewalled: Police Abuse and Misconduct against Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender People in the U.S.,” Amnesty International,http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/AMR51/122/2005/en/2200113d-d4bd-11dd-8a23-d58a49c0d652/ amr511222005en.pdf
27. “Incarcerated Women,” The Sentencing Project,http://www.sentencingproject.org/doc/publications/cc_Incarcerated_Women_Factsheet_ Sep24sp.pdf
28. “Gender Violence and the Prison Industrial Complex,” INCITE! Critical Resistance Statement,http://www.incite-national.org/page/incite-critical-resistance-statement
29. New Life Prostitution Initiative,”http://www.pdinewlife.org/about/
30. “Psychiatry: We Need a Truth and Reconciliation Commission in Mental Health,” Leah Harris,http://www.madinamerica.com/2014/05/psychiatry-admit-wrong-mental-health/
31. “Do Drug Courts Work? Findings from Drug Court Research,” National Institute of Justice, http://www.nij.gov/topics/courts/drug-courts/pages/work.aspx
32. “The Dangers of Criminalizing Pregnancy Outcomes,” Pacific Standard,http://www.psmag.com/navigation/politics-and-law/dangers-criminalizing-pregnancy- outcomes-81289/
33. “Tennessee Set to Criminalize Pregnant Women Who Use Illegal Drugs,” The Guardian,http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/apr/19/tennessee-criminalise-pregnant-women-drugs
34. “The Dangers of Criminalizing Pregnancy Outcomes,” Pacific Standard,http://www.psmag.com/navigation/politics-and-law/dangers-criminalizing-pregnancy- outcomes-81289/
35. “New CDC Vital Signs: Prescription Painkiller Epidemic Among Women,” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,http://www.cdc.gov/media/dpk/2013/dpk-Prescription%20drug%20overdose.html
36. “Chemotherapy Side Effects Sheet,” National Cancer Institute,http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/coping/physicaleffects/chemo-side-effects; also see “Birth Defects Linked to Zoloft,” Birth Defect,http://birthdefectresource.com/birth-defect-causes/ prescription-drugs/antidepressants/zoloft-ab/
37. “Sex, Love and SSRIs,” Psychology Today,http://www.psychologytoday.com/articles/200704/sex-love- and-ssris
38. “Problems with Animal Research,” American Anti-Vivisection Society,http://www.aavs.org/site/c.bkLTKfOSLhK6E/b.6456997/k.3D74/Problems_with_ Animal_Research.htm#.U8gCB41dXzd
39. “Environmental Impact of Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products,” Wikipedia,http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Environmental_impact_of_pharmaceuticals_and_personal_care_products
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